Ho et al. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children
literature type:journal article
reference:Ping Ho, Jennie C. I. Tsao, Lian Bloch, and Lonnie K. Zeltzer. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Vol. 2011: 14 pages.
description:Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the eﬀects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two ﬁfth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher’s Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years). There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved signiﬁcantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01), internalizing problems (P < .02)), narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02), attention problems (P< .01), inattention subscale (P < .001)), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01), attention deﬁcit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01), inattention subscale (P < .001), oppositional deﬁant problems (P< .03)), and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01), sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001)). Participation in group drumming led to signiﬁcant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These ﬁndings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool.